The outer layer, called the epidermis, is as thin as a pencil line.
It consists of a protective layer of skin cells that continually
shed and give way to new cells. Below the epidermis are the dermis
and hypodermis, two layers that produce the oil and collagen, that
give your skin support, elasticity, and shine. Taking care of your
skin might be very important for you, so before you spend money on
skin products, it is important to know what type of skin you have
and what kind of care it needs.
Know your skin type. Generally there are four skin types: oily,
dry, sensitive and combination.
- Dry Skin: If your skin has a strong tendency toward
dehydration, lacks oil, and has few breakouts if any at all, it is
considered dry. In more extreme cases, dry skin lacks elasticity
and can be extremely sensitive to the sun, wind, and cold
temperatures. Wash your face once a day with a rich, creamy
cleanser and warm water. Rinse with warm water and pat your skin
dry. Use toner to help with that tight and flaky feeling of
dehydration. Avoid toners and makeup that contain alcohol as
alcohol-based products have a drying effect on skin.
- Oily Skin:If your skin is oily, it usually has a lot of
shine to it very soon after cleansing and the pores are generally
slightly enlarged. It is more prone to pimples, blackheads, and
whiteheads than other skin types and is coarser in texture. Your
skin tends to attract more dirt than dry skin, so wash your face
twice a day with a gentle non-foaming cleanser and warm water.
Rinse with warm water. Use an alcohol-free, hydrating toner to help
remove additional residue. Oil blotting sheets through out the day
can help control shine, and it takes as little as 3 minutes after
- Normal Skin: Some consider normal skin to be Combination
skin, but it is not. If your skin is marked by oily skin in the T
zone and dry, taut skin on the cheeks, and changes with seasons
(dryer in winter, oilier in summer) it is considered normal. Normal
skins can also be 'Normal-To's' as in normal to oily or normal to
dry. Wash your face with cleansers that are designed for your
normal/normal-to skin type. Wipe an alcohol free, hydrating toner
all over the face. Apply moisturizer more frequently to dry
- Sensitive Skin: Please note that may have sensitive skin
AND normal, oily, or dry. If your skin has allergic reactions to
beauty products and is usually sensitive to the sun, wind, and cold
weather, it is sensitive. Sensitivity can show up in rashiness,
redness, inflammation, acne, and dilated capillaries. Look for
cleansers, toners, makeup, and moisturizers that are fragrance-free
and hypoallergenic. Cleanse, tone and moisturize with gentle
products everyday. The idea for your skin is to always choose
products with a soothing benefit. Some common ingredients to look
for are: chamomile, azulene, bisabolol, allantoin, lavender,
camphor, calamine, rosemary, thyme, aloe vera etc.
- Combination Skin: Combination skin is truly two extreme
skin types on one face. These situations occur when there is acne
and a lot of oil in one area when the rest of the skin is generally
not producing oil and dry. Two common examples are a dry skin with
papular and pustular acne on the cheeks or a normal skin with
inflamed papular and pustular acne in the chin and mouth area. For
Combination skins, treat each area appropriatly as described above.
If the acne is severe, consult a dermatologist or esthetician.
- Use homemade masks to moisturize your skin. They're easy to
make, and they really work! For instance, a mixture of grapes,
lemon and egg white is very helpful for oily skin and honey
promotes the healing of ulcers and burns.
- Washing your face with plain refrigerated yogurt every night
makes most acne cases vanish within a few days.
- Carefully choose your facial scrub to match your pore size. The
type and size of the grains in the face scrub can actually make the
difference between exfoliated and irritated skin.
- Avoid stretching or pulling on the delicate skin near your eyes
when putting on creams or cosmetics. This delicate area shows age
markings like wrinkles much sooner than it should when subjected to
too much rough handling.
- Never coat your entire face in foundation. Chances are, you
only need a little bit in areas you are most self- conscious
Sunscreen is the real fountain of youth. Get into the habit of
applying sunscreen or a lotion with minimum SPF 15 to 30 protection
daily. Remember the sun's rays can still be damaging in winter
months as it reflects off snow. If you don't like taking the time
to put on both moisturizer and sunscreen, buy a moisturizer WITH
- Wash all cosmetics off as soon as you know you will not be
going out again and avoid wearing cosmetics whenever possible to
give your skin a rest.
- Change the applicators and clean the brushes you use to apply
make-up on a consistent basis. Bacteria and oils can build up in
these places and then be spread back on the skin each time make-up
- Wash your pillowcase often and avoid wearing hair products to
bed. The combination of hair products and facial oils on the
pillowcase can cause blemishes.
- Never pick at a blemish. Many poor results come of picking at
breakouts, such as scarring, infection, or permanant enlargement of
the pore. You are also more likely to get another breakout in the
same place over time.
- Avoid touching your skin as much as possible.
- Clean your cellphone and any other device that may come in
contact with your skin.
- Oil blotting sheets can help absorb oil through the day so you
are not tempted to re-apply powder or foundation, or overwash your
- Vitamins are essential for healthy skin, especially vitamins A,
B,and C. Vitamin E helps to improve the complexion when applied
- Over washing skin can make it red and sore.
- Choose a sunblock specifically meant for your face as some
sunblocks can cause breakouts unless specifically designed for the
- Use caution when using any product containing acids or
peroxides such as acne creams and fade creams. These increase the
skins' sensitivity to sun and may cause redness and peeling.
- Never allow anyone to 'pop' or otherwise break open a blemish.
This is a very unsafe practice as bacteria and germs can enter
through the broken skin.
- Toner can dry out skin if used too often